Cell metabolism governing the growth and functioning of each cell and a whole organism refers to chemical transformations and enzyme-catalyzed energy producing and energy utilizing reactions of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Amongst the most metabolically active organs are liver, brain, gut, kidneys, and heart [1–3]. Although the rate of metabolic reactions is lower in skeletal muscles, they account for around 20% of the total energy expenditure due to a 50–60% contribution to a total body mass . Several microRNAs were reported to control processes related to metabolism such as insulin secretion (miR-9, miR-375), adipocyte differentiation (miR-143), fatty acid metabolism (miR-122), and myogenesis (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-133b, and miR-206) (reviewed in ). Of potential meaning is also miR-378a, located in the gene encoding master metabolic regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, coactivator 1 beta (PGC-1𝛽) . miR-378a was found to affect lipid and xenobiotic metabolism, lipid storage, mitochondrial function, and shift towards a glycolytic pathway (Warburg effect) [5, 6]. Moreover, it affects muscle differentiation via regulation of myogenic repressor, MyoR . Because nutrients supply for metabolic processes is a matter of circulation, metabolically active tissues require high vascular density. Recently, miR378a was reported to regulate tumor angiogenesis mainly via inhibition of tumor suppressors SuFu and Fus-1 [8, 9]. Thus, a growing body of evidence suggests a role of miR-378a as a mediator controlling reciprocally dependent processes such as metabolism, muscle differentiation/regeneration, and angiogenesis.
Updated on July 12, 2020