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๐Ÿ“ Brain Default-Mode Network Dysfunction In Addiction

Aberrant patterns of brain functional connectivity in the default mode network (DMN) have been observed acrossdifferent classes of substance use disorder (SUD) and are associated with craving and relapse. In addicted in-dividuals resting functional connectivity (RSFC) of the anterior DMN, which participates in attribution of personalvalue and emotional regulation, tends to be decreased, whereas RSFC of the posterior DMN, which directsattention to the internal world, tends to be increased. Aberrant RSFC within the DMN is believed to contribute toimpaired self-awareness, negative emotions and to ruminations in addiction. Additionally, the disrupted con-nectivity between DMN and cortical regions involved with executive function, memory and emotion could becritical to drug-taking regardless of negative consequences and to stress-triggered relapse. At the system level, thedynamics of DMN interactions with the executive control and the salience networks are also disturbed inaddiction. The DMN is prominently engaged during the withdrawal and preoccupation phases of the addictioncycle at the expense of the executive control network and with an enhanced participation of the salience network.In contrast, DMN prominence appears to be transitorily decreased during the intoxication phases. There is alsogrowing evidence that disruption of the DMN in addiction reflects in part changes in dopaminergic, glutamatergic,and GABAergic signaling associated with acute and chronic drug use. Findings are starting to reveal DMN RSFC asa potential biomarker for predicting clinical outcomes in SUD and identify the DMN as a promising target for thetreatment of addiction

Updated on May 18, 2020

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